Sample Exam 1 Questions

Cell Biology
Sample Hour Exam #1 Questions
1. Identify each of the following molecules.
examples include amino acid, fatty acid, monosaccharide, nucleotide, steroid, neutral fat, phospholipid, etc;
2. Describe the chemical basis for pH. If the pH of one solution is 4 and the pH of a second solution is 6, what is the actual difference in [H+] concentration?
3. Describe how a disulfide bond helps maintain the tertiary structure of proteins.
4. What do the terms hydrophobic and hydrophilic mean? How is the property of being hydrophobic or hydrophilic related to polarity?
5. Why would changing an amino acid in a protein potentially affect the function of the protein?
6. Why is a phospholipid molecule amphipathic?
7. Describe the basic principle of bond formation in polysaccharides. Include an example of an alpha bond and a beta bond.
8. Show how nucleotides are linked together to form a nucleic acid.
9. Many reactions that are thermodynamically possible do not occur at any appreciable rate because of an activation energy requirement. In molecular terms, what does this mean?
10. How do biological organisms use coupling to run reactions that require energy. Give an example.
11. Compare two reactions that have delta Go' values of +1254 and -678.
12. ATP has evolved as the central molecule in energy metabolism. Could 1,3, biphosphoglycerate serve the same function? Why or why not?
13. Compare real and virtual images. How are they produced? How are they used in light microscopes?
14. What is the limit of resolution? How is it calculated? Compare the L of R of the eye, light microscope and electron microscope.